Publications Evolution of multicellularity, bet hedging and microbial cooperation Publications (Google Scholar link) Submitted / in revision Pentz, J.T., P. Márquez-Zacarías, P.J. Yunker, E. Libby and W.C. Ratcliff. Ecological advantages and evolutionary limitations of aggregative multicellular development. In revision at Nature Communications. BioRxiv link. Gulli, J., M.D. Herron and W. C. Ratcliff. Evolution of altruistic cooperation among nascent multicellular organisms. Revised MS in review at Evolution. Yanni, D., Márquez-Zacarías, P., P.J. Yunker and W.C. Ratcliff. The physics of microbial sociality. Invited mini-review in revision at Current Biology. 2019 Herron, M.D., J.M. Borin, J.C. Boswell, J. Walker, K. Chen P.D., C.A. Knox, M. Boyd, F. Rosenzweig, W.C. Ratcliff. De novo origins of multicellularity in response to predation. In press at Scientific Reports. Tan, J. Q. He, J.T. Pentz, C. Peng, X. Yang, M.H. Tsai, Y. Chen, W.C. Ratcliff, L. Jiang. Copper oxide nanoparticles promote the evolution of multicellularity in yeast. Nanotoxicology, 1-9. Link. Download. 2018 Jacobeen, S., J.T. Pentz, E. Graba, C. Brandys, W.C. Ratcliff and P. Yunker. Cellular packing, mechanical stress and the evolution of multicellularity. Nature Physics 14 (3), 286. Open access link. Read the News and Views by Vernita Gordon here. Libby, E., W.W. Driscoll and W.C. Ratcliff. Programmed cell death can improve the efficacy of microbial bet hedging. Scientific reports 8 (1), 1120. Open access link. Libby, E., and W.C. Ratcliff. Shortsighted Evolution Constrains the Efficacy of Long-Term Bet Hedging. The American Naturalist 193 (3). Link. Download. Herron, M., S.A. Zamani-Dahaj and W.C. Ratcliff. Trait heritability in major transitions. BMC Biology 16 (1), 145. Open access link. Jacobeen, S., E.C. Graba, C.G. Brandys, T.C. Day, W.C. Ratcliff and P.J. Yunker. Geometry, packing, and evolutionary paths to increased multicellular size. Physical Review E 97 (5), 050401. Link. Download. Herron, M*. W.C. Ratcliff, J. Boswell, R.F. Rosenzweig. Genetics of a de novo origin of undifferentiated multicellularity. Royal Society open science 5 (8), 180912. Open access link. Mai, T., I. Pangeas, W.C. Ratcliff, V. Vazirani and P. Yunker. Cycles in Zero Sum Differential Games and Biological Diversity. The nineteenth ACM conference on Economics and Computation (ACM EC’18). Download. 2017 Ratcliff, W.C., M. Herron, E. Libby and P. Conlin. Nascent life cycles and the emergence of higher-level individuality. In press at Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 372: 20160420. Link. Download. Thomas, J., S.S. Watve, W.C. Ratcliff, B.K. Hammer. Horizontal Gene Transfer of Functional Type VI Killing Genes by Natural Transformation. mBio 8:e00654-17. Open access link. Lowry, N.V., L. McNally, W.C. Ratcliff and S. Brown. Division of labor, bet hedging, and the evolution of mixed biofilm investment strategies. mBio 8:e00672-17 Open access link. McNally, L., E. Bernardy, J. Thomas, A. Kalziqi, J.T. Pentz, S. Brown, B. Hammer, P. Yunker and W.C. Ratcliff. 2017. Killing by Type VI secretion drives clonal phase separation and correlates with cooperation. Nature Communications 14371. Open access link. 2016 Weitz, J.S., S.P. Brown, C. Eskin, K. Paarporn, and W.C. Ratcliff. 2016. Replicator dynamics with feedback-evolving games: towards a co-evolutionary game theory. PNAS. 11: 47. E7518–E7525. Link. Libby, E., P. Conlin, B. Kerr and W.C. Ratcliff. 2016. Stabilizing multicellularity through ratcheting. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 331:20150444. Open access link. Conlin, P. and W.C. Ratcliff. 2016. Trade-offs drive the evolution of increased complexity in nascent multicellular digital organisms. In Multicellularity: Origins and Evolution. Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology. Download. Pentz, J., B. Taylor and W.C. Ratcliff. 2016. Apoptosis in snowflake yeast: novel trait, or side effect of toxic waste? Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 118: 20160121. Link. 2015 Pentz, J.T., T. Limberg, N. Beerman, and W.C. Ratcliff. 2015. Predator escape: an ecologically realistic scenario for the evolutionary origins of multicellularity. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 8:13. Open access link. Ratcliff, W.C., Fankhauser, J.F., Rogers, D., Greig, D. and Travisano, M. 2015. Origins of multicellular evolvability in snowflake yeast. Nature Communications 6: 6102. Open access link. Ratcliff, W.C., P. Hawthorne, and E. Libby. 2015. Courting disaster: how diversification mode affects fitness under risk. Evolution 69: 126-135. Download. 2014 Libby, E. and W.C. Ratcliff. 2014. Ratcheting the evolution of multicellularity. Science 346 (6208), 426-427. Download. Libby, E., W.C. Ratcliff, M. Travisano and B. Kerr. 2014. Geometry shapes evolution of early multicellularity. PLoS Computational Biology 10 (9:e1003803), 1-12. Download. Pentz, J.T., M. Travisano and W.C. Ratcliff. 2014. Clonal development is evolutionarily superior to aggregation in wild- collected Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, 550-554. Download. Ratcliff, W.C. and M. Travisano. 2014. Experimental evolution of multicellular complexity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. BioScience, 64 (5), 383-393. Download. Ratcliff, W.C., A. Raney, S. Westreich, and S. Cotner. 2014. A novel laboratory activity for teaching about the evolution of multicellularity. The American Biology Teacher 76 (2), 81-87. Download. 2013 Ratcliff, W.C., M. Herron, K. Howell, J. Pentz, F. Rosenzweig, and M. Travisano. 2013. Experimental evolution of an alternating uni- and multicellular life cycle in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Nature Communications, 4: 2742. Open access link. Ratcliff, W.C., M. Hoverman, M. Travisano. and R. F. Denison. 2013. Disentangling direct and indirect fitness effects of microbial dormancy. The American Naturalist, 182:147-156. Download. Ratcliff, W.C., J.T. Pentz, and M. Travisano. 2013. Tempo and mode of multicellular adaptation in experimentally-evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Evolution, 67: 1573–1581. doi: 10.1111/evo.12101. Download. 2012 E.T. Kiers, W.C. Ratcliff and R.F. Denison. 2012. Single strain inoculation may creates spurious correlations between legume fitness and rhizobial fitness. New Phytologist, 198: 4-6. DOI: 10.1111/nph.12015 Download. Rebolleda-Gomez, M, W.C. Ratcliff and M. Travisano. 2012. Adaptation and divergence during experimental evolution of multicellular Saccharomyces cerevisiaeProceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, 99-104. Download. Ratcliff, W.C., R. F. Denison, M. Borrello and M. Travisano. 2012. Experimental evolution of multicellularity. PNAS, 109:5, 1595-1600. Open Access Link 2011 Ratcliff, W.C., K. Underbakke and R. F. Denison. 2011. Measuring the fitness of symbiotic rhizobia. Symbiosis, 55:2, 85- 90.  Download. Ratcliff W.C. and R.F. Denison. 2011. Alternative actions for antibiotics. Science, 332:6029, 547-548.  Download 2010 Ratcliff W.C. and R.F. Denison. 2010. Individual-level bet hedging in the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Current Biology  20:1740-1744. Open Access link. See commentary by Zhang X.X. and P.B. Rainey. 2010: “Bet hedging in the underworld”.  Ratcliff W.C. and R.F. Denison. 2010. Bacterial persistence and bet hedging in Sinorhizobium meliloti. Communicative & Integrative Biology 4:1, 1-3. Open Access link. 2009 Ratcliff W. C., P. Hawthorne, M. Travisano, and R. F. Denison. 2009. When stress predicts a shrinking gene pool, trading early reproduction for longevity can increase fitness, even with lower fecundity. PLoS One, 4:e6055.  Open Access link Ratcliff W. C. and R. F. Denison. 2009. Rhizobitoxine producers gain more poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in symbiosis than do competing rhizobia, but reduce plant growth. The ISME Journal, 3:870-872.  Download 2008 Ratcliff W. C., S. V. Kadam, and R. F. Denison. 2008. Polyhydroxybutyrate supports survival and reproduction in starving rhizobia. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 65:391-399.  Download We are extremely grateful to the National Science Foundation, NASA Exobiology, the Packard Foundation, the Keck Foundation, and the Simons Foundation for supporting our research!